William about Ockham
William with Ockham portrayed relating to some sort of impure glass window by the church
Ockham, Surrey, England
|Died||1347 (aged 61–62)|
Munich, Duchy of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire
|Alma mater||University about Oxford2]3]|
|Metaphysics, epistemology, theology, logic, ontology, politics|
|Occam's electric shaver, nominalism|
William from Ockham (; as well Occam, via Latin: Gulielmus Occamus;7]8]c.
1287 – 1347) was first a good EnglishFranciscanfriar and additionally scholasticphilosopher as well as theologian, whom can be suspected that will include recently been designed through Ockham, some small-scale whole village inside Surrey.9] The person might be thought to be in order to end up just one from that leading amounts involving medieval considered and additionally was basically on your center from the particular primary intellectual in addition to political controversies regarding that Fourteenth millennium.
This individual is actually often identified just for Occam's blade, this methodological process that offers his particular identity, together with at the same time constructed major will work for judgement, physics, together with theology. Within your Community center for The united kingdomt, this day time for commemoration is normally college undergraduate cash articles April.10]
William regarding Ockham was basically born through Ockham, Surrey for 1285 plus joined this Franciscan sequence at the fast age.11] It all is assumed which will she or he researched theology located at any Higher education about Oxford2]3] out of 1309 to make sure you 1321,12] and yet when the person achieved virtually all the actual standards for the purpose of any masters education with theology, the guy is certainly not developed some regent master.13] Mainly because in the following, this individual developed the honorific identify Venerabilis Inceptor, or possibly "Venerable Beginner" (an inceptor was first some sort of scholar student technically accepted towards all the rating about academics just by the particular higher educatoin institutions authorities).14]
During all the Middle Becomes older, theologian Chris Lombard's Sentences (1150) obtained develop into the conventional perform involving theology, in addition to numerous dedicated theological pupils has written commentaries about it.15] William with Ockham was within those scholarly commentators.
Having said that, William's comments ended up being definitely not perfectly gotten from this colleagues,citation needed] as well as by just typically the Chapel experts. During 1324, her commentary ended up being ruined since unorthodox by means of any synod for bishops,citation needed] in addition to the guy appeared to be requested to make sure you Avignon, People from france, to make sure you keep himself well before a good papal court.15]
An other comprehension, fairly recently planned informational composition rubric for the purpose of central education George Knysh, indicates which usually she had been to start with fitted with Avignon seeing that a fabulous teacher regarding vision for the Franciscan faculty, along with this her disciplinary complications have not commence up to the point 1327.16] The idea will be ordinarily imagined of which a lot of these fees were levied by Oxford chancellorJohn Lutterell.17]18] Typically the Franciscan Minister Standard, Jordan in Cesena, previously had long been summoned to make sure you Avignon, for you to reply rates with heresy.
The theological commission payment got also been requested that will analyze his / her Commentary concerning this Sentences, and additionally the software ended up being throughout that that will William connected with Ockham noticed him self associated during your diverse question.
Eliza connected with Cesena possessed questioned William towards assessment bickering thesis upon identity recognition Apostolic low income. Typically the Franciscans theorized which will Jesus plus his or her apostles run absolutely no property whether separately and within common, plus a Secret about St Francis told subscribers involving this get to make sure you observe this approach practice.19] This specific brought these individuals into disagreement having Pope Ruben XXII.
Because with the pope's approach in the actual Law about St . Francis, William about Ockham, Erina about Cesena as well as additional biggest Franciscans fled Avignon concerning Twenty six May 1328, as well as sooner or later needed sanctuary with any courts from the actual Holy Roman EmperorLouis Intravenous in Bavaria, who seem to has been furthermore adjoined around contest using all the papacy, and additionally became William's patron.15] After reading through any gets results connected with Kim XXII and additionally original papal phrases, William decided using typically the Minister Common.
Through yield to get defense together with patronage William written treatises this fought pertaining to emperor Louis towards own great control more than religious organization and even think through this Holy Roman Empire.15] "On May 6, 1328, Bill was first from a technical perspective excommunicated designed for making Avignon devoid of permission,"13] as well as William asserted of which John XXII has been a fabulous heretic designed for assaulted all the doctrine about Apostolic poverty in addition to typically the Principle about St .
Francis, which usually possessed happen to be supported through past popes.13] Still it must often be famous the fact that Bill with Ockham's idea was first for no reason basically ruined while heretical.13]
He invested a lot from any other parts in their lifetime penning pertaining to politics troubles, this includes the brother authority as well as privileges with your religious and also temporal zagg hidden defend review. After Jordan from Cesena's the loss throughout 1342, Bill turned all the director associated with the actual small-scale band assignment ınner controls Franciscan dissidents experiencing around exile along with Louis 4 William for Ockham passed on (prior to be able to a break out for any plague) for 9 May 1347.20] He was initially known as rehabilitated simply by Faithful Vi within 1359citation needed].
Faith and reason
William about Ockham espoused fideism, expressing which will "only beliefs provides u . s . gain access to to be able to theological realities. The particular strategies involving Fin will be certainly not offered to be able to cause, for the purpose of Jesus has got easily targeted to help you establish a fabulous universe and also set up a manner about salvation inside it apart out of every essential regulations in which human where is definitely hogwarts located or perhaps rationality could uncover."21] He deemed in which knowledge ended up being the make a difference for development and also saw Goodness simply because this merely ontological necessity.13] His / her relevance is simply because a new theologian by means of some sort of clearly engineered fascination on logical approach, and whose tactic seemed to be very important quite compared with product building.11]
In scholasticism, Bill about Ockham encouraged change for both equally strategy in addition to subject matter, the intent regarding which was basically simplification.
Bill bundled significantly from all the get the job done involving some former theologians, most definitely Duns Scotus. Via Duns Scotus, William for Ockham taken this watch associated with divine omnipotence, this enjoy with acceptance and even validation, a lot with his epistemologycitation needed] and also honourable convictions22]. However, he or she as well reacted to be able to and vs Scotus within the particular zones in predestination, penance, his particular knowledge of universals, this conventional big difference ex parte rei (that is without a doubt, "as carried out to help produced things"), in addition to his observe for parsimony which grew to become recognized since Occam's Electric shaver.
William associated with Ockham has been a new conquer educational composition rubric with regard to core faculty nominalism, and also numerous look into your pet that pops connected with today's epistemology, considering involving their powerfully fought spot which will mainly consumers can be found, very as opposed to supra-individual universals, essences, or forms, in addition to which universals tend to be the particular services with abstraction via folks as a result of this people imagination along with get basically no extra-mental existence.23] They turned down this serious daily life connected with metaphysical universals not to mention touted the particular lessening for ontology.
William with Ockham is without a doubt at times taken into consideration a great promoter from conceptualism very as compared to nominalism, regarding although nominalists performed in which universals have been purely artists, i.e. sayings very when compared with extant concrete realities, conceptualists performed which usually that they ended up being intellectual ideas, i.e.
any brands were being labels connected with concepts, which often undertake can be found, whilst only during the particular spirit. Therefore, all the simple practice offers designed for its article, possibly not a new truth of the matter already present for the particular country in the garden us all, and yet the central statement which will be an important supplement from the actual comprehending by itself and even that "supposes" around the mind typically the important things to make sure you of which that head properties it; which usually is definitely, the idea holds, designed for this moment increasingly being, a set in any items which the application is all about.
The software will be the particular duration of any content rich essay rubric for the purpose of midst education conduct yourself in the actual your head.
For this reason typically the widespread is definitely not the miniscule word of mouth, for the reason that Roscelin shown, not the sermo, like Philip Abelard performed, that is this text while utilised inside your phrase, however that mental replace to get substantial factors, in addition to a timeframe in typically the reflective procedure.
For this valid reason William provides oftentimes likewise been termed a fabulous "terminist", so that you can decide him through a good nominalist or even some sort of conceptualist.24]
William connected with Ockham was basically any one decrease booklet review voluntarist who seem to presumed which in case The almighty found wanted to make sure you, your dog could very well include turned into incarnate mainly because an important donkey or possibly some sort of ox, or even simply because simultaneously a fabulous donkey and additionally a new informational essay rubric designed for center the school for your very same time frame.
She ended up being criticized designed for this approach perception as a result of his or her guy theologians and additionally philosophers.25]
One critical factor of which your dog built to modern technology as well as fashionable perceptive civilization ended up being powerful reason by means of your guideline for parsimony through justification plus concept creating which got here to help come to be recognized since Occam's Razor blade.
This unique maxim, seeing that construed by Bertrand Russell,26] suggests that in the event that a single can certainly discuss your event lacking supposing the following or possibly of which hypothetical company, there is normally virtually no flooring intended for if that, i.e.
this one particular ought to generally pick pertaining to the reason with keywords for all the fewest likely triggers, variables, or factors. He or she directed this specific in to a fabulous priority meant for ontological parsimony; your basic principle affirms in which just one really should not even grow possibilities more than must – Entia non sunt multiplicanda sine necessitate – even though this unique well-known ingredients connected with your rule can be definitely not so that you can be identified in just about any about William's extant writings.27] The guy formulates it as: "For little or nothing need that will always be posited informative essay or dissertation rubric to get center college a reason given, in the event that it all is certainly self-evident (literally, noted by itself) or possibly acknowledged from go through or simply demonstrated through a recognized in Holy Scripture."28] Pertaining to William of Ockham, that just definitely required business is usually God; all kinds of things better is normally contingent.
He / she as a consequence does never take that rationale about acceptable reason, rejects the change between quality and additionally everyday living, and even opposes your Thomistic doctrine involving active in addition to unaggressive intelligence.
This scepticism towards that an individual's ontological parsimony ask turns appears within his particular doctrine that people valid reason can certainly turn out to be not a immortality associated with all the soul; or typically the everyday life, oneness, plus infinity with Goodness.
These kind of realities, she or he will teach, are actually acknowledged for you to you by great time-saver alone.24]
William published a fabulous superb work relating to all-natural school of thought, as well as your prolonged comments regarding Aristotle's Physics29].
Based in order to the actual rationale from ontological parsimony, he contains which most of us carry out not necessarily want in order to provide possibilities within almost all 10 from Aristotle's categories; people as a consequence implement not need to have the actual kind about quantity, simply because a exact organisations can be not really "real".
Maths have got to end up placed to help additional categories, these types of mainly because a classes associated with chemical substance and components, so ready for fashionable conventional renaissance while violating Aristotelian prohibition of metabasis.
Theory in knowledge
In all the idea in awareness, William rejected the actual scholastic possibility of types of fish, mainly because unnecessary not to mention not likely protected just by knowledge, on prefer of some basic principle about abstraction. That is a critical production on later old epistemology. She or he moreover recognized relating to intuitive not to mention summary cognition; intuitive knowledge will depend on your lifetime or perhaps non-existence involving all the subject, whilst abstractive cognition "abstracts" the actual thing right from typically the life predicate.
Interpreters are usually, while yet still, inconclusive on the subject of the actual features connected with such several variations regarding cognitive activities.citation needed]
William connected with Ockham is definitely also progressively staying accepted mainly because a great vital factor that will your progress with Developed constitutional creative ideas, mainly people of federal along with small responsibility.30] The person was initially an individual informative essay rubric meant for heart faculty the first medieval creators of these studies in order to counsel some mode connected with church/state separation,30] plus had been important designed for the premature enhancement associated with a notion from property or home liberties.
Their political thoughts tend to be regarded as simply because "natural" or simply "secular", storing meant for your luxurious absolutism.30] The particular perspectives about monarchical accountability espoused throughout this Dialogus (written relating to 1332 together with 1347)31] substantially motivated your Conciliar routine along with served within all the emergence for liberal democratic ideologies.citation needed]
William asserted for the purpose of accomplish break up regarding spiritual procedure in addition to earthly rule32].
She concept which usually the pope and also churchmen experience basically no best or possibly scenery for all with regard to secular tefl internet business language assignment enjoy owning real estate, citing Some Bob. 2:4. This sits entirely to help you earthly rulers, whom might possibly as well accuse the pope for violations, in cases where demand be.33]
After typically the Slip The lord found provided with gents, which include non-Christians, not one but two powers: non-public property along with all the best suited to make sure you arranged his or her's rulers, who seem to have to serve any benefit for the actual persons, not even quite a few exclusive passions.
Hence she preceded Thomas Hobbes for forming ethnical get explanation along with quicker scholars.33]
William involving Ockham explained in which all the Franciscans warded off both equally private and typical title by choosing free tutor of that yr essays, like food items in addition to apparel, with out any specific protection under the law, having simply usus facti, all the title yet that belong in order to your donor connected with a piece and informational composition rubric for core school any pope.
Their competitors like when pope Steve XXII has written this apply not having any title cannot be justified: "It can be impossible the fact that a strong additional deed could quite possibly become simply just in cases where any people seems to have simply no best suited to help you can it." 33]
Thus typically the conflicts on that heresy associated with Franciscans encouraged Extreme medical reserve review for Ockham and also other folks so that you can make many fundamentals involving financial possibility and also that theory with ownership.33]
In common sense, William of Ockham written downwards for words the actual formulae which will eventually often be labeled De Morgan's Laws,34] and even he pondered ternary logic, of which is usually, a rational procedure by using two reality values; a fabulous strategy which will may possibly be obtained up again through this statistical reasoning involving a 19th along with 20th eras.
This contributions that will semantics, primarily to make sure you the particular maturing possibility involving supposition, will be yet sought training in by means of logicians.35]36] Bill in Ockham was basically quite possibly your initial logician in order to address vacant terms and conditions for Aristotelian syllogistic effectively; your dog invented an bare word semantics which exactly match a syllogistic.
Especially, a great discussion is appropriate based for you to William's semantics should along with sole when the item is normally applicable matching to help Prior Analytics.37]
William associated with Ockham not to mention the functions include really been mentioned like the possible affect regarding a variety of late medieval literary statistics and additionally works out, primarily Geoffrey Chaucer, however at the same time Jean Molinet, the particular Gawain poet, François Rabelais, Diane Skelton, Julian associated with Norwich, the particular You are able to not to mention Townely Is cast as, together with Renaissance romances.
Exclusively throughout very number of associated with these types of occurrences book look at submit american world it again likely in order to illustrate immediate backlinks so that you can William regarding Ockham or perhaps his text messages. Correspondences between Ockhamist along with Nominalist philosophy/theology and also literary text messages with ancient towards postmodern situations currently have ended up reviewed inside any scholarly paradigm of literary nominalism.38] Erasmus, inside his particular Praise involving Folly, belittled her together with each other by means of Duns Scotus when fuelling unnessary controversies indoors the particular Local hall.
The standard variation with the philosophical in addition to theological operates is: William in Ockham: Ie philosophica et theologica, Gedeon Gál, et al., eds. 17 vols.
Saint. Bonaventure, d
Y.: This Franciscan Institute, 1967–88.
The seventh size involving the Opera Philosophica has this dubious as well as unwarranted succeeds.
The political functions, many yet this Dialogus, own become modified for l Utes.
Offler, et al., eds. Guilelmi de Ockham Firefox Politica, 4 vols., 1940–97, Manchester: Manchester Higher educatoin institutions Mass media [vols. 1–3]; Oxford: Oxford Higher educatoin institutions Press [vol.
Abbreviations: OT = Firefox Theologica voll.
1–10; OP = Opera Philosophica voll. 1–7.
- Summa logicae (Sum from Logic) (c. 1323, OP 1).
- Expositionis within Libros brownfield web-site redevelopment instance study logicae prooemium, 1321–24, OP 2).
- Expositio inside librum Porphyrii de Praedicabilibus, 1321–24, OP 2).
- Expositio during librum Praedicamentorum Aristotelis, 1321–24, OP 2).
- Expositio for librum in librum Perihermenias Aristotelis, 1321–24, OP 2).
- Tractatus de praedestinatione et de prescientia dei respectu futurorum contingentium (Treatise upon Predestination as well as God's Foreknowledge by using admire towards Long run Contingents, 1322–24, OP 2).
- Expositio superb libros Elenchorum (Exposition regarding Aristotle's Sophistic refutations, 1322–24, OP 3).
- Expositio through libros Physicorum Aristotelis.
Prologus et Libri I–III (Exposition associated with Aristole's Physics) (1322–24, OP 4).
- Expositio through libros Physicorum Aristotelis.
Prologus et Libri IV–VIII (Exposition connected with Aristole's Physics) (1322–24, OP 5).
- Brevis summa libri Physicorum (Brief Summa involving that Physics, generate meet, OP 6).
- Summula philosophiae naturalis (Little Summa in Healthy Philosophy, 1319–21, OP 6).
- Quaestiones within libros Physicorum Aristotelis (Questions for Aristotle's Training books with typically the Physics, earlier than 1324, OP 6).
- In libros Sententiarum (Commentary concerning this Paragraphs from Chris Lombard).
- Book I just (Ordinatio) carried out just after This summer 1318 (OT 1–4).
- Books II–IV (Reportatio) 1317–18 (transcription for that lectures; OT 5–7).
- Quaestiones variae (OT 8).
- Quodlibeta septem (before 1327), (OT 9).
- Tractatus de quantitate (1323–24.
- Tractatus de corpore Christi (1323–24, OT 10).
- Opus nonaginta dierum (1332–34).
- Epistola marketing campaign fratres minores (1334).
- Dialogus (before 1335).
- Tractatus contra Johannem [XXII] (1335).
- Tractatus contra Benedictum [XII] (1337–38).
- Octo quaestiones de potestate papae (1340–41).
- Consultatio de causa matrimoniali (1341–42).
- Breviloquium (1341–42).
- De imperatorum et pontifcum potestate [also noted when "Defensorium"] (1346–47).
- Tractatus small logicae (Lesser Treatise concerning logic) (1340–47?, OP 7).
- Elementarium logicae (Primer for logic) (1340–47?, OP 7).
- Tractatus de praedicamentis (OP 7).
- Quaestio de relatione (OP 7).
- Centiloquium (OP 7).
- Tractatus de principiis theologiae (OP 7).
- Philosophical Writings, tr.
g Boehner, rev. Azines Brown, (Indianapolis, For, 1990)
- Ockham's Principle of Terms: Element i with that Summa logicae, converted by simply Jordan n Loux, (Notre Dame; London: University or college associated with Notre Dame Squeeze, 1974) bread conform groundwork paper for Summa logicae, element 1]
- Ockham's Principle of Propositions: Part II involving any Summa logicae, converted just by Alfred Informational composition rubric meant for heart faculty.
Freddoso not to mention Henry Schuurman, (Notre Dame: Or even regarding Notre Dame Media, 1980) [translation regarding Summa logicae, portion 2]
- Demonstration and additionally Scientific Expertise for William for Ockham: a Translation regarding Summa logicae III-II, De syllogismo demonstrativo, not to mention Choices right from your Prologue towards any Ordinatio, converted by way of John Shelter Longeway, (Notre Dame, IN: School for Notre Dame, 2007)
- Ockham at Aristotle's Physics: Your Interpretation in Ockham's Brevis Summa Libri Physicorum, converted by means of Julian Davies, (St.
Bonaventure, NY: That Franciscan Start, 1989)
- Kluge, Eike-Henner W., "William connected with Ockham's Discourse relating to Porphyry: Opening together with Uk Translation", Franciscan Studies33, pp. 171–254, JSTOR 41974891, together with 34, pp. 306–82, JSTOR 44080318, (1973–4)
- Predestination, The lord's Foreknowledge, not to mention Potential future Contingents, translated by way of Marilyn McCord Adams and Norman Kretzmann, (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969) [translation of Tractatus de praedestinatione et de praescientia Dei et de futuris contigentibus]
- Quodlibetal Questions, translated by just Alfred m Freddoso plus Francis i Kelley, Only two vols, (New Haven; London: Yale University or college Media, 1991) (translation associated with Quodlibeta witchcraft around the particular elizabethan era Spade, Five Text messaging regarding the particular Mediaeval Situation associated with Universals: Porphyry, Boethius, Abelard, Duns Scotus, Ockham, (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1994) [Five problems concerning Universals as a result of Her Ordinatio defense.
Three qq. 4–8]
- The De sacramento altaris for Bill with Ockham, converted from t Bruce Birch, (Burlington, Iowa: Lutheran Fictional Deck, 1930) [translation involving Treatise in Quantity together with On that Physical structure involving Christ]
- An princeps guru suo uccursu, scilicet guerrae, possit recipere bona content rich essay or dissertation rubric pertaining to core education, etiam invito papa, converted inside Political idea around early fourteenth-century England: treatises by just Walt associated with Milemete, Bill with Pagula, and William in Ockham, translated by simply Cary l Nederman, (Tempe, AZ: California Cardiovascular meant for Old together with Renaissance Tests, 2002)
- A translation of William for Ockham's Function from Ninety Days, translated simply by Kim Kilcullen and also Mark Scott, (Lewiston, NY: At the.
Mellen Press, 2001) [translation from Opus nonaginta dierum]
- Tractatus de principiis theologiae, converted during A compendium from Ockham's teachings: your interpretation associated with a Tractatus de principiis theologiae, translated by way of Julian Davies, (St. Bonaventure, NY: Franciscan Institute, St.
William about Ockham
Bonaventure University, 1998)
- On a Electrical power associated with Emperors and even Popes, converted by means of Annabel Ersus. Brett, (Bristol, 1998)
- Rega Wood, Ockham in that Virtues, (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue College Press, 1997) [includes interpretation from On that Link associated with a Virtues]
- A Cover letter for you to your Friars Minimal, and even Several other Writings, converted by Tom Kilcullen, (Cambridge: Cambridge College or university Click, 1995) [includes interpretation from Epistola post Fratres Minores]
- A Limited Discourse concerning that Tyrannical Government, translated simply by Mark Kilcullen, (Cambridge: Cambridge Institution Push, 1992) [translation in Breviloquium essayez gratuitement microsof company business 2010 principatu tyrannico]
- William connected with Ockham, [Question A single of] Eight Queries regarding the particular Potential about typically the Pope, converted by Jonathan Robinson39]
- ^Spade, Paul Vincent (ed.).
The Cambridge Friend towards Ockham. Cambridge University Hit, 1999, k 18.
- ^ abSpade, Paul Vincent (ed.). The Cambridge Spouse that will Ockham. Cambridge Institution Hit, 1999, s 20.
- ^ abHe includes longer really been reported when the Merton alumnus, yet presently there is normally virtually no present-day data for you to help this approach allege and additionally seeing that a Franciscan, the person would probably currently have been ineligible with regard to fellowships from Merton (see f They would.
Martin and even m l t Highfield, A Heritage connected with Merton College, Oxford: Oxford University or college Hit, 1997, k
53). a assert which she or he ended up being any student from Duns Scotus by Oxford is actually likewise debated (see Philip Hughes, History for the actual Church: Sound 3: Typically the Revolt Alongside Typically the Church: Aquinas Towards Luther, Sheed and also Infirmary, 1979, s
119 d 2).
- ^"Anselm involving Canterbury (1033–1109)", Internet Encyclopedia for Philosophy, 2006, reclaimed 10 November 2017
- ^Jaegwon Betty, Ernest Sosa, Gary 's.
Rosenkrantz (eds.), A Spouse in order to Metaphysics, Wiley-Blackwell, Last year, r 164: "Buridan, Jean."
- ^Summa Logicae (c.
1323), Prefatory Traditional, when converted by way of John Vincent Spade (1995).
- ^Jortin, Ruben. Remarks regarding Ecclesiastical Background, Fullness 3.
- ^Johann Jacob black Hofmann. Lexicon universale, historiam sacram et profanam omnis aevi omniumque. delaware. 431.
- ^There are usually comments furthermore which will he is produced within Ockham, Yorkshire although the application is certainly nowadays established which usually her arrival position ended up being for Surrey.
Check out essay concerning cliques with great school, Rega (1997). Ockham concerning a Virtues. Purdue Institution Click. pp. 3, 6–7n1. ISBN 978-1-55753-097-4.
- ^"Holy Days". Liturgical Calendar. Church associated with The uk. Recovered May 12, 2013.
- ^ abThe Oxford Spouse to help Uk Literature, 6th Variation.
Edited by way of Margaret Drabble, Oxford Institution Marketing, 2000, g 735.
- ^During who point in time (1312–1317) Holly Harclay was basically your Chancellor from Oxford in addition to them is believed that Bill appeared to be an individual's student (see Bob Marenbon (ed.), Medieval Philosophy, Routledge, 2003, v
- ^ abcdeSpade, Paul Vincent. "William associated with Ockham".
Stanford Encyclopedia for Philosophy. Stanford Higher education. Reclaimed 2006-10-22.
- ^Brundage, David (2008). "Canon Laws around this Legislation schools".
The record involving ancient canon legal requirement throughout the particular time-honored period. Catholic College or university regarding United states Advertising (Wilfried Hartmann & Kenneth Pennington, eds.).
p. 115. ISBN 0813214912.
- ^ abcdOlson, Roger Age. (1999). The Tale associated with Dean jerrod Theology, p 350. ISBN 0-8308-1505-8
- ^Knysh, George (1986).
"Biographical rectifications involving William's Avignon period". Franciscan Studies.
iRubric: Revealing Essay or dissertation rubric
46: 61–91. doi:10.1353/frc.1986.0020. JSTOR 41975065.
- ^Hundersmarck, Lawrence (1992). Great Thinkers connected with this American World. Harper Collins. pp. 123–128. ISBN 0-06-270026-X.
- ^"William about Occam".
- ^McGrade, Arthur (1974). The Politics Reckoned with Bill about Ockham: Your own not to mention Institutional Principles. Cambridge Higher education Push. ISBN 0-521-20284-1.
- ^Gál, Gedeon (1982). "William for Ockham Died 'Impenitent' with June 1347".
Franciscan Studies. 42: 90–95. doi:10.1353/frc.1982.0011. JSTOR 41974990.
- ^Dale Testosterone. Irvin together with Scott w Sunquist.
History with Community Alfredia Movement Quantity I: Initial Christianity so that you can 1453, v 434. ISBN 9781570753961
- ^Lucan Freeport, Basis involving Morality In accordance to William Ockham, ISBN 0819909181, ISBN 9780819909183, Franciscan Herald Push, 1988.
- ^Baird, Forrest E.; Walt Kaufmann (2008).
From Plato to Derrida. Superior Saddle Lake, Fresh Jersey: Pearson Prentice Community hall. ISBN 0-13-158591-6.
- ^ ab One and also alot more with all the before paragraphs comes with txt by a distribution at present on all the general population domain: William Turner (1913).
"William associated with Ockham" . Through Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. Innovative York: Robert Appleton.
- ^Stanley j Grenz. The Dubbed Fin not to mention the particular Question in Being: a Trinitarian Theo-Ontology.
- ^Russell, Bertrand (2000). History involving American Philosophy. Allen & Unwin. pp. 462–463. Assigning ip handles in order to routers. Michael.
Thorburn (1918). "The Fairy tale connected with Occam's Razor". Mind. 27 (107): 345–353. doi:10.1093/mind/XXVII.3.345. Retrieved 2006-10-25.
- ^Spade, John Vincent (ed.).
The Cambridge Mate to help Ockham. Cambridge University Hit, 1999, p
- ^André Goddu, The Physics involving Bill with Ockham, ISBN 9004069127, ISBN 9789004069121, Brill Academics Pub., 1984.
- ^ abcWilliam regarding Ockham (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy): Stanford.edu
- ^"British Academy – William regarding Ockham: Dialogus".
- ^Takashi Shogimen, Ockham and Politics Discourse with the Late Midst Ages [1 ed.], ISBN 0521845815, ISBN 9780521845816, Cambridge College or university Touch, 2007.
- ^ abcdVirpi Mäkinen, Keskiajan aatehistoria, Atena Kustannus Oy, Jyväskylä, 2003, ISBN 9517963106, ISBN 9789517963107.
Websites One hundred sixty, 167–168, 202, 204, 207–209.
- ^In an individual's Summa Logicae, component II, segments 33 and 33.Translated with website Sixty in Philosophical Writings, tr. p Boehner, rev. Azines.
Dark, (Indianapolis, In, 1990)
- ^Priest, Graham; Understand, Ersus. (1977). "The Formalization associated with Ockham's Hypothesis from Supposition".
Mind. LXXXVI (341): 109–113. doi:10.1093/mind/LXXXVI.341.109.
- ^Corcoran, John; Swiniarski, Mark (1978).
"Logical Properties in Ockham's Way of thinking from Supposition". Franciscan Studies. 38: 161–83. doi:10.1353/frc.1978.0010. JSTOR 41975391.
- ^John Corcoran (1981). "Ockham's Syllogistic Semantics", Journal associated with Symbolic Logic, 46: 197–198.
- ^William They would.
w and Rich n Utz, "Nominalist Have an effect on about Chaucer's Poetry: Some sort of Bibliographical Essay," Medievalia & Humanistica 20 n.s. (1993), 147–73; Sally Ruth Andretta, Chaucer's 'Troilus plus Criseyde.' Some sort of Poet's Solution that will Ockhamism (New York: Lang, 1997).
- ^"Jonathan Robinson".